- // Avishai Shemesh 1, 2 , Aleksandra Kugel 1 , Naama Steiner 3 , Michal Yezersky 3 , Dan Tirosh 3 , Avishay Edri 1 , Omri Teltsh 1 , Benyamin Rosental 4 , Eyal Sheiner 3 , Eitan Rubin 1 , Kerry S. Campbell 5 , Angel Porgador 1, 2 1 The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel 2 National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel 4 Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine and the Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford, CA, USA 5 Blood Cell Development and Function Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Correspondence to: Angel Porgador, email: firstname.lastname@example.org Keywords: NKp44, NKp30, tumor, decidua, microenvironment Received: August 04, 2016 Accepted: September 10, 2016 Published: September 27, 2016 ABSTRACT NKp44 and NKp30 splice variant profiles have been shown to promote diverse cellular functions. Moreover, microenvironment factors such as TGF-β, IL-15 and IL-18 are able to influence both NKp44 and NKp30 splice variant profiles, leading to cytokine-associated profiles. Placenta and cancerous tissues have many similarities; both are immunologically privileged sites and both share immune tolerance mechanisms to support tissue development. Therefore, we studied the profiles of NKp44 and NKp30 splice variants in these states by comparing (i) decidua from pregnancy disorder and healthy gestation and (ii) matched normal and cancer tissue. Decidua samples had high incidence of both NKp44 and NKp30. In cancerous state it was different; while NKp30 expression was evident in most cancerous and matched normal tissues, NKp44 incidence was lower and was mostly associated with the cancerous tissues. A NKp44-1 dominant inhibitory profile predominated in healthy pregnancy gestation. Interestingly, the NKp44-2/3 activation profile becomes the leading profile in spontaneous abortions, whereas balanced NKp44 profiles were observed in preeclampsia. In contrast, a clear preference for the NKp30a/b profile was evident in the 1 st trimester decidua, yet no significant differences were observed for NKp30 profiles between healthy gestation and spontaneous abortions/preeclampsia. Both cancerous and matched normal tissues manifested balanced NKp30c inhibitory and NKp30a/b activation profiles with a NKp44-1 dominant profile. However, a shift in NKp30 profiles between matched normal and cancer tissue was observed in half of the cases. To summarize, NKp44 and NKp30 splice variants profiles are tissue/condition specific and demonstrate similarity between placenta and cancerous tissues.