- Abstract Background : Since its introduction, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has evolved to its present status as the dominant therapeutic modality for patients with life-threatening arrhythmias. Several randomized studies have shown the benefit of ICD implantation as the first choice of treatment for primary as well as secondary indications for ventricular arrhythmias. Therefore, it is expected that the use of ICDs will increase further. The main objectives of this study were to analyze the Israeli experience with ICD implantation from 1993 to 1999, to examine the diffusion of ICD therapy in Israel and the evolution of implantation patterns and indications. Methods : We conducted a retrospective review and analysis of an ICD registry for the period of January 1993–December 1999. Data collected included demographic, administrative, clinical and survival data. Results : A total of 732 new implantations were identified and reviewed. The mean length of follow up of all patients was 30.7±21.1 months. 86% of patients were males and the mean age at implantation was 62.6±12.4 years. 79% of patients had CAD and the mean EF of all patients was 29.2±11.2%. 135 patients (18.4%) died during follow-up. One, two and three-year survival rates were calculated and were 92.7%, 87.8% and 82.0% respectively. A steady increase in implantation rate and in implanting centers was observed over the years. Conclusions : ICD therapy is relatively expensive; therefore a national registry which is continuously monitored may be the most expedient method to follow clinical and economic aspects of the utilization of this therapeutic modality.