- Over the past 2 decades, enormous progress has been made with regard to pharma- cotherapies for patients with multiple sclerosis. There is perhaps no other subspe-cialty in neurology in which more agents have been approved that substantially alter the clinical course of a disabling disorder. Many of the pharmaceuticals that are currently approved, in clinical trials, or in preclinical development were initially evaluated in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Two Food and Drug Administration–approved agents (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) were developed using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. This model has served clinician-scientists for many decades to enable understanding the inflammatory cascade that underlies clinical disease activity and disease surrogate markers detected in patients.