New insights into the atrial electrophysiology of rodents using a novel modality: The miniature-bipolar hook electrode Academic Article uri icon


  • Studies of atrial electrophysiology (EP) in rodents are challenging, and available data are sparse. Herein, we utilized a novel type of bipolar electrode to evaluate the atrial EP of rodents through small lateral thoracotomy. In anesthetized rats and mice, we attached two bipolar electrodes to the right atrium and a third to the right ventricle. This standard setup enabled high-resolution EP studies. Moreover, a permanent implantation procedure enabled EP studies in conscious freely moving rats. Atrial EP was evaluated in anesthetized rats, anesthetized mice (ICR and C57BL6 strains), and conscious rats. Signal resolution enabled atrial effective refractory period (AERP) measurements and first time evaluation of the failed 1: 1 atrial capture, which was unexpectedly longer than the AERP recorded at near normal cycle length by 27.2±2.3% in rats (P< 0.0001; n= 35), 31.7±8.3% in ICR mice (P …

publication date

  • January 1, 2008