Visualization studies of a freon-113 bubble condensing in water Academic Article uri icon


  • Several visualization methods have been applied in studies of organic bubbles condensing in water. The results, although qualitative in nature, have furnished an insight into the physical phenomena governing the process. Shadow graphing of the collapsing bubbles has outlined the thermal surroundings of the bubble. Shadowgraphs of a freon-113 bubble recorded in sequence have illustrated the formation of a thermal layer around the injected bubble. The shadowgraphing has reflected the density gradients, i.e., the temperature field, but it has also led to an understanding of the flow phenomena around the bubble. It was almost obvious that the thermal boundary layer and the wake, related also to a viscous boundary layer and a viscous wake, respectively. The thermal shedding of the wake, and further the envelopment of the bubble by the thermal cloud, were understood to correspond to the flow of the water surrounding the bubble. However, all that still remained to be experimentally proved by methods directly related to flow visualization. That goal was achieved by photographing the entrainment of colored water in the wake of a rising freon-113 bubble. These photographs complemented the shadowgraphs previously recorded and qualitatively proved that the thermal phenomena corresponded to the viscous flow.

publication date

  • January 1, 1987