- The presentation of Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) may vary in relation to ethnicity or environmental effects. The objective of our study was to characterize NHL among the Negev Bedouin population, compared to the Jewish population. Retrospective data were collected for 45 Bedouin and 45 Jewish patients who were treated at Soroka University Medical Center between 1990 and 2007. Upon diagnosis, rates of aggressive NHL types, involvement of extra-lymphatic organs, as well as mean LDH were higher among Bedouin. Treatment response was poorer among the Bedouin: overall survival and disease-free survival were higher among Jews (mean of 145 and 168 months, respectively, compared with 70 and 45 months, respectively, among Bedouin; p < 0.01 for both). In summary, disease aggressiveness and poor response to treatment among the Negev Bedouin may shed some light on the pathogenicity of NHL and may indicate a need for more aggressive treatment in different ethnic groups.