- The field of Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE), which has evolved during the last two decades, attempts at introducing artificial intelligence concepts into the practice of software engineering. Despite considerable progress, it seems that the challenges the field encountered at its early days still hold. In particular, the adoption of AOSE principles in the academia, and even more so in the industry, is limited. This chapter aims to specify what AOSE is, to determine the related research areas, to examine historical perspectives of AOSE evolution, and to analyze its progress and point out challenges and future research directions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. All rights are reserved.