An integrative psychotherapist’s account of his focus when treating self-critical patients. Academic Article uri icon


  • This article presents the factors on which I focus as an integrative psychotherapist when treating self-critical patients. I first describe my personal version of psychotherapy integration. Drawing principally from Wachtel's cyclical psychodynamic model, I also incorporate existential and neurocognitive elements highlighting patients' future-oriented thinking and goal-directed action. I then relate this integrative model to the vexing clinical problem of self-criticism. Finally, I outline three types of interventions I attempt to implement in each session: (1) Multiple-Selves Analysis (MSA); (2) Behavioral Activation (BA), conceptualized integratively; and (3) use of therapist's presence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

publication date

  • January 1, 2013