- Background: Novel biomarkers which may serve as therapeutic targets are essential for lung cancer treatment. Here we investigated the prognostic significance of protein kinase Cη (PKCη), a cell cycle regulator involved in tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance, in patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Sixty-three chemotherapy-naive patients were examined for PKCη by immunohistochemistry and divided into PKCη H-Score tertiles (low, intermediate and high). Time until event (relapse or mortality) within one year was determined using Cochran-Armitage test and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: The distribution of patients according to clinical stage 1-4 was: 27%, 5%, 26% and 42%, respectively. PKCη overexpression was associated with advanced stage (p=0.03) and the risk for an event (p=0.045). Patients of the lowest tertile were less likely to experience an event. Conclusion: PKCη is a novel prognostic marker in NSCLC that may predict poor prognosis. The use of PKCη-specific inhibitors in NSCLC may prove valuable.