- Background The importance of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is being increasingly recognized. However, there is a paucity of data about effective treatment for this condition. The present study investigated the impact of beta blocker therapy for 3 months before admission on the two-year survival of patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function hospitalized due to decompensated heart failure. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 345 consecutive patients with heart failure with preserved systolic function older than 18 years hospitalized due to decompensated heart failure. Two groups of patients were compared: those who received beta blockers within 3 months before admission (BB) and those who did not (NBB). The primary outcome was two year all cause mortality (maximal follow-up available in all subjects). To adjust for a potential misbalance between BB and NBB groups in baseline characteristics, a propensity score for beta blocker therapy was incorporated into the survival model. Results 154 patients (44.6%) received beta blockers prior to admission. Overall two year mortality rate in the BB group was 50% vs. 62.8% in the NBB group, log-rank test p = 0.016. Beta blockers showed protective effect on two-year survival after adjustment for comorbidities and propensity score (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI 0.47–0.99). Conclusions Therapy with beta blockers may have protective effect on survival of patients with heart failure with preserved systolic function.