- The burden of cardiovascular pathologies, such as heart failure and vascular diseases, is still very high. The clinical therapies for these life-threatening conditions are unable to regenerate and restore tissue function, providing mainly palliative treatment. This critical drawback has fueled the development of novel technologies aimed to repair or replace damaged heart tissue or non-functioning vasculature. Such strategies, broadly termed 'cardiovascular tissue engineering', are a direct result of collaboration between researchers from various fields, such as material science, engineering, cardiovascular biology, and medicine. This chapter offers an overview of such multidisciplinary strategies, emphasizing the various concepts and major applications. The chapter could be of interest not only from an educational perspective, but also for researchers and medical professionals, offering a fresh view on novel and powerful treatment options based on tissue engineering and regeneration.