- Interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein, CXCL10/IP-10, is a member of the CXC chemokine family with pro-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. This chemokine has been proposed to be a key link between inflammation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether preeclampsia and delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate are associated with changes in maternal serum concentration of CXCL10/IP-10. This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: (1) non-pregnant women (N = 49); (2) women with normal pregnancies (N = 89); (3) patients with preeclampsia (N = 100); and (4) patients who delivered an SGA neonate (N = 78). SGA was defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile. Maternal serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 were measured by sensitive immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. (1) Patients with normal pregnancies had a significantly higher median serum concentration of CXCL10/IP-10 than non-pregnant women (median 116.1 pg/mL, range 40.7-1314.3 vs. median 90.3 pg/mL, range 49.2-214.7, respectively; p = 0.002); (2) no significant correlation was found between maternal serum concentration of CXCL10/IP-10 and gestational age (between 19 and 38 weeks); (3) there were no differences in median serum CXCL10/IP-10 concentrations between patients who delivered an SGA neonate and those with normal pregnancies (median 122.4 pg/mL, range 37.3-693.5 vs. median 116.1 pg/mL, range 40.7-1314.3, respectively; p > 0.05); (4) patients with preeclampsia had a higher median serum concentration of CXCL10/IP-10 than normal pregnant women (median 156.4 pg/mL, range 47.4-645.9 vs. median 116.1 pg/mL, range 40.7-1314.3, respectively; p < 0.05); (5) patients with preeclampsia had a higher median concentration of CXCL10/IP-10 than those who delivered an SGA neonate (median 156.4 pg/mL, range 47.4-645.9 vs. median 122.4 pg/mL, range 37.3-693.5, respectively; p < 0.05). Patients with preeclampsia have significantly higher serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 than both normal pregnant women and mothers who have SGA neonates. These results are likely to reflect an anti-angiogenic state as well as an enhanced systemic inflammatory response in patients with preeclampsia. Alternatively, since preeclampsia and SGA share several mechanisms of disease, it is possible that a higher concentration of this chemokine may contribute to the clinical presentation of preeclampsia in patients with a similar intrauterine insult.