- Exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in agricultural and urban populations has been associated with a range of adverse health effects. The purpose of the current study was to estimate exposure to OPs in the general adult population in Israel and to determine dietary and demographic predictors of exposure. We measured six non-specific organophosphate pesticide metabolites (dialkyl phosphates) in urine samples collected from 247 Israeli adults from the general population. We collected detailed demographic and dietary data from these individuals, and explored associations between demographic and dietary characteristics and urinary dialkyl phosphate concentrations. OP metabolites were detectable in all urine samples. Concentrations of several dialkyl phosphate metabolites (dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, diethylphosphate) were high in our study population relative to the general populations in the US and Canada and were comparable to those reported in 2010 in France. Total dialkyl phosphates were higher in individuals with fruit consumption above the 75th percentile. In a multivariate analysis, total molar dialkyl phosphate concentration increased with age and was higher in individuals with high income compared to individuals with the lowest income. Total diethyl metabolite concentrations were higher in females and in study participants whose fruit consumption was above the 75th percentile. In conclusion, we found that levels of exposure to OP pesticides were high in our study population compared to the general population in the US and Canada and that intake of fruits is an important source of exposure.