- Objectives To investigate the effects of Methylphenidate (MPH) on postural stability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children in single and dual task conditions. Methods A randomized controlled double-blind study analyzing postural stability in 24 ADHD children before and after MPH vs. placebo treatments, in three task conditions: (1) Single task, standing still; (2) dual task, standing still performing a memory-attention demanding task; (3) standing still listening to music. Results MPH resulted in a significant improvement in postural stability during the dual task condition and while listening to music, with no equivalent improvement in placebo controls. Conclusions MPH improves postural stability in ADHD, especially when an additional task is performed. This is probably due to enhanced attention abilities, thus contributing to improved balance control during performance of tasks that require attention. MPH remains to be studied as a potential drug treatment to improve balance control and physical functioning in other clinical populations.