Synergistic effect of electric field and ultrasound on transdermal transport Academic Article uri icon


  • Transdermal drug delivery offers a substitute method to oral drug delivery and injections for drug administration (1). However, its applications are currently limited to only a few drugs due to the low permeability of the stratum comeum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin. The SC consists of flat dead cells (keratinocytes) surrounded by lipid bilayers, whose highly ordered structure confers an impermeable nature to the SC. Various approaches including chemical enhancers (2), ultra-sound (3-4) and electrical enhancement (5-8) have been suggested to enhance transdermal drug transport. In some cases, high strengths of the physico-chemical forces (for example, electricity, ultrasound) are required to deliver a given drug dose transdermally. However, the highest strength of these physicochemical forces that can be used is likely to be limited by their adverse physiological effects. It is possible that …

publication date

  • January 1, 1996