Lessons denied: a history of therapeutic response to combat stress reaction during Israel's War of Independence (1948), the Sinai Campaign (1956) and the Six Day... Academic Article uri icon


  • The current article examines the history of therapeutic response in the Israel Defense Forces toward combat stress reaction during two decades, and in the course of three wars: the 1948 War of Independence, the 1956 Sinai Campaign, and the 1967 Six Day War. Three independent sources were used: recorded debriefing materials; interviews conducted with therapists, commanders and military historians; and professional literature on the wars in Hebrew and other languages. The collected material is described and issues of attitudes, treatment approaches and preparedness are discussed.

publication date

  • January 1, 1996