- In this article we describe and analyze the attitude and treatment of mentally ill Holocaust survivors in Israel. The treatment and conditions of this group in Israel have been far from satisfactory over the years, but for many decades there was almost no open debate on this subject. The survivors who suffered from mental problems and were hospitalized in psychiatric and geriatric institutes were part of the repressed collective memory of the Israeli society. This case study illuminates the process of collective memory formation in Israel, addressed from the standpoint of a marginalized group within Holocaust survivors. It is based on archival and published documents in professional and lay publications and on interviews with Israeli psychiatrists and social workers.