- Purpose: The production of reactive oxygen substances plays an important regulatory role in many physiologic reproductive processes. Excessive production may lead to oxidative stress (OS), and bring about pregnancy disorders. Growing evidence indicates that OS plays a major role in the pathophysiology of complications such as early pregnancy loss, placental insufficiency, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and neonatal complications. Whether parturition induces oxidative stress is in dispute. In this review, we elaborate the influence of mode of delivery (vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery) on oxidative stress of neonates. Methods: A review of old and recent literature was done. The studies were divided according to the impact of mode of delivery on oxidative stress in the newborn. Results: There is a divergence in the oxidative stress production according to the mode of delivery. Conclusions: In view of neonatal oxidative stress measures, no major difference was found between uncomplicated vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section.