- Bulk handling and processing of particulate materials are integral to a wide range of industrial processes. Many of these industrial particulate systems display difficult and unpredictable behaviour, giving rise to considerable challenges in the design and operation of the plants. In recent decades, the discrete element method (DEM), which models the motion and interaction of individual particles, has become increasingly popular as a computational tool to study and investigate complex particulate systems. To date, considerable scientific advances have been made in the development of the technique , resulting in an explosion of the use of DEM in a myr-iad of industrial and scientific applications. However, careful validation of simulation results with closely matching experimental data are still rather rare and it is vital to establish DEM's capability to produce satisfactory quantitative predictions .