Gauge Invariance and Mass Without Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Academic Article uri icon


  • In this letter a manifestly covariant quantization of electrodynamics is studied, starting from a gauge-invariant Lagrangian. In this framework, it is found that the photon can have a nonzero bare mass, while maintaining gauge invariance. It is then observed that these ideas can be used in other theories with U(1) local gauge invariance, including chiral symmetries, in order to have mass and gauge invariance without having to introduce spontaneous symmetry breaking. Local baryon symmetry is considered.

publication date

  • January 1, 1979