- This article describes the development of a national health targeting initiative entitled 'Healthy Israel 2020'which was created to enhance the health and wellbeing of Israelis through a variety of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. This initiative builds upon the experience of two major worldwide targeting efforts," Health People 2010" of the US and the World Health Organization's Health21', as well as lessons learned from other countries. Important philosophical underpinnings are highlighted, particularly the evidence- based nature of the process. Real-world organizational and policy challenges and creative solutions are presented. It is hoped that this report will be of value to others in Israel and elsewhere who are interested in improving the health of their nations.