Gender differences and sex-specific manifestations associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in women Academic Article uri icon


  • The rapidly growing rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among women has prompted many challenging issues related to the management and consequences of HIV and its complications in this population. This paper reviews the current evidence with regard to various aspects of HIV infection in women. Special emphasis is placed on gender- differences as well as sex-specific manifestation of this disease, including epidemiology, viral load determination and disease progression, related morbidity, and anti-retroviral therapy. It is concluded that current advances in the understanding of HIV infection among women may lead to further refinement and optimization efforts in the management of HIV- infected women.

publication date

  • January 1, 2003