- Purpose of investigation: To identify surgical pathologic factors that best correlate with administration of adjuvant radiotherapy and best predict survival in early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (RHND). Methods: Data from the files of 126 patients with cervical carcinoma treated by RHND at the Soroka Medical Center from 1962 through 2005 were analyzed. Results: Fifty-four percent of the patients received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. In a univariate analysis, each of the following factors: positive pelvic lymph nodes, lower uterine segment involvement, lymph vascular space involvement, penetration ≥ 50% of the cervical wall, grade 2+3, parametrial and/or paracervical involvement, vaginal margin involvement, non-squamous histologic type, tumor size ≥ 3 cm and Stage IB 2 + IIA was significantly associated with administration of radiotherapy. In a multivariate analysis, positiviy of pelvic lymph nodes was persistently the most significant factor associated with administration of radiotherapy. The 5-year survival rate was 82.6% overall. In a univariate analysis, a significant worsening in survival was demonstrated with positivity of pelvic lymph nodes and positivity of lymph vascular space involvement. In a "better fit" model of multivariate analysis, pelvic lymph node status was the strongest and the only significant predictor of survival. Conclusions: In patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, pelvic lymph node status is the strongest factor affecting administration of adjuvant radiotherapy and the most significant predictor of survival.