- Purpose of investigation: To investigate the characteristics of patients with recurrent cervical carcinoma after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (RHND), and to evaluate the effect of clinical and surgical pathologic factors on the outcome of these patients. Methods: Data from the files of 32 patients with recurrent cervical carcinoma after RHND managed at the Soroka Medical Center from 1962 through 2005 were analyzed. Results: These 32 patients represent a recurrence rate of 25.4%. The median recurrence-free interval was 19.3 (range, 1-106) months. The prevailing signs and symptoms were obstructive nephropathy, sacral pain and bowel obstruction. Sixteen (50%) patients had loco-regional recurrence alone, 12 (27.5%) loco-regional plus distant recurrence, and four (12.5%) distant recurrence alone. Treatment modalities included radiotherapy, chemotherapy and various surgical procedures. The 5-year survival rate was 35%, with 22 (68.7%) of the patients dead of disease at the end of follow-up. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant worsening in survival with each of the following factors: loco-regional plus distant recurrence (p = 0.010), positive pelvic lymph nodes (p = 0.010), tumor size > 3 cm (p = 0.013), positive lymph vascular space involvement (p = 0.017) and RHND without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (p = 0.042). In a multivariate analysis, extent of recurrent disease (loco-regional alone versus loco-regional plus distant recurrence) and pelvic lymph node status (negative vs positive) at RHND were the only significant predictors of survival. Uremia was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Recurrent cervical carcinoma after RHND is a grave disease with unfavorable prognosis. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, extent of recurrent disease and pelvic lymph node status at RHND were significant predictors of survival.