- Atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide and specifically in Israel. These guidelines update the previous guidelines of the Israeli Society for Research, Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis, published in 2005. The need for an update is based on new scientific data published in recent years necessitating changes in the recommendations for preventing and treating atherosclerosis. These guidelines were written in collaboration between all the societies outlined here and the content of this statement was approved by the delegates of these societies. The recommendations were written taking into consideration guidelines published by other international medical societies and also the specific needs of the Israeli medical system. Due to limitations of space, in the current paper we present: assessment of cardiovascular risk, smoking cessation and the treatment of dyslipidemia. Other sections including: recommendations to the general population, nutritional and physical activity recommendations, treatment of hypertension, prevention of ischemic stroke and the metabolic syndrome are available at http://www.ima.org.il/harefuah.