- Objective To determine the prevalence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess the associated risk factors. Design Retrospective, cross sectional study. Methods Patients with T2DM, seen for annual follow-up between 2009 and 2010, were evaluated by digital nonmydriatic retinal photography for the detection of diabetic retinopathy. Retinal photographs were assessed by a retina specialist. Results ERM was present in 102 of 1550 patients with T2DM (6.5%). Of the participants, 1443 had sufficient documented data to conduct statistical analysis for variant risk factors. The prevalence of ERM was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001; 1.2% for <49 years, 4% for 50–59 years, 8.2% for 60–69 years, and 9.6% for >70 years), cataract surgery (p < 0.001), diabetic nephropathy (p < 0.001), and chronic renal failure (p = 0.039). Prevalence was similar for both sexes (53% females, 47% males; p = 0.33). In logistic regression models, the prevalence of ERM was significantly associated with increasing age (p = 0.018), cataract surgery (p < 0.001), and diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.011). Conclusions The prevalence of ERM in patients with T2DM in the present study was not significantly different than that of the general population. ERM was significantly associated with age, diabetic nephropathy, and cataract surgery.