- Bekhterev was one of the prominent scientists of his era. He played a crucial role in the study of the development of the brain's organization, neurophysiology and neuropathology and in the objective study of psychological phenomena. Due to a trick of fate, Bekhterev's name and scientific contributions were neglected and consigned to oblivion. In this article we would like to restore the historical injustice done to Bekhterev. Based on newly discovered documents and testimonies, we present little known details about his life history, his clinical work and the tragic circumstances of his death.