- Objectives. To determine the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of high dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (90/6.4 mg/kg/day) against common bacterial pathogens causing acute otitis media (AOM), including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). Methods. In this open label multicenter study, 521 infants and children with AOM [mean age, 18.6 months; age <24 months, n = 375 (72%)] were treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate 90/6.4 mg/ kg/day in two divided doses for 10 days. Bilateral otitis media, previous episodes of AOM, antibiotic treatment within 3 months and day-care attendance were recorded in 60.1, 35.7, 50.2 and 38.2% of the children, respectively. Tympanocentesis was performed before the first dose and repeated on Days 4 to 6 for all children with S. pneumoniae at 22 centers and for all children with any pathogen at 3 centers. Clinical response was assessed at end of therapy. Results. Pathogens were isolated from 355 (68%) of 521 enrolled children; 180 children underwent repeat tympanocentesis and were bacteriologically evaluable. Baseline pathogens were S. pneumoniae (n = 122 enrolled/93 bacteriologically evaluable), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 160/51), both (n = 37/32) and others (n = 36/4). Pathogens were eradicated from 172 (96%) of 180 bacteriologically evaluable children. Overall 122 (98%) of 125 isolates of S. pneumoniae were eradicated, including 31 (91%) of 34 PRSP isolates (penicillin MICs 2 to 4 μg/ml). Seventy-eight (94%) of 83 isolates of H. influenzae were eradicated. Symptoms and otoscopic signs of acute inflammation were completely resolved or improved on Days 12 to 15 in 263 (89%) of 295 clinically evaluable children with bacteriologically documented AOM. Conclusions. On the basis of bacteriologic outcome on Days 4 to 6 and clinical outcome on Days 12 to 15, we found that high dose amoxicillin/ clavulanate (90/6.4 mg/kg/day) was highly efficacious in children with AOM, including those most likely to fail treatment, namely children <24 months of age and those with infections caused by PRSP.