- During 1 decade (1989–1998), data on invasive pneumococcal disease were collected prospectively to assess the burden of disease among Jewish and Bedouin children in southern Israel and the potential reduction in illness that can be achieved by using conjugate vaccines. Data on 513 children <15 years old with bacteriologically proven invasive pneumococcal disease were obtained. Among Jewish and Bedouin children <5 years old, incidence rates were 45 and 139 cases per 100,000 child-years of observation, respectively. Jewish and Bedouin children differed in clinical manifestations, seasonal patterns of disease, serotype distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility rates. The potential coverage by 7-, 9-, and 11-valent conjugate vaccines is 41%, 67%, and 71%, respectively, for Jewish children and 22%, 63%, and 65%, respectively, for Bedouin children. The 9- and 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have the potential to substantially decrease invasive pneumococcal disease in southern Israel.