- Tooth components of deciduous molars were measured from standardized radiographs of Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Enamel height and width were greater in deciduous teeth of Homo sapiens sapiens than in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and the differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Dentin height showed no significant differences between the two groups, but enamel to floor of pulp chamber and pulp height and width dimensions were significantly greater in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Discriminant analysis carried out between groups, using deciduous tooth components, showed an accuracy of 98-100% for identification of Homo sapiens sapiens and 83-92% for identification of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. The results obtained in this study on dental dimensions support the hypothesis of a distinct evolutionary line for Neanderthals.