Cyclic and Oscillatory Behaviors in Biological Systems Academic Article uri icon


  • Various animal models have been proposed for depression and mania over the years. Learned helplessness, behavioral despair, and intracranial self-stimulation models among others were offered for depression, whereas models focusing mainly on hyperactive behavior induced by stimulants, discrete brain lesions, and intracranial self-stimulation were suggested for mania [1-3]. None of these models captured the complexity of bipolar illness— alternating as it does between depressive and manic poles—but rather attempted to …

publication date

  • April 25, 2000