- Biomaterials play a pivotal role as scaffolding materials in the study of three-dimensional (3D) cell and tissue development and in a variety of bioengineering strategies for the restoration of damaged and malfunctioning tissues. Both in vitro and in vivo (e.g. cell-based therapies) bioengineering strategies deliver cells or a mixture of cells and signaling factors to a target tissue together with an acellular scaffolding material that triggers tissue ingrowth and regeneration. Bioengineering strategies in which tissue-like constructs are produced under controlled conditions are based on 3D lattices as vehicles for the cells that regenerate into the required tissues. Fabrication of engineered tissue is a complicated task, since tissue function is controlled by complex spatially and temporally ordered cues, each of which is the product of a myriad of cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.