- Background and purpose: Different techniques have been used for the treatment of patients with anastomotic stenosis after radical prostatectomy (RP). In this retrospective study, we analyzed our experience with urethral dilation and consecutive transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided injections of long-acting steroids in the scar area. Patients and methods: We reviewed the records of patients who underwent RP in our department from 2002 to 2010 and presented to the outpatient clinics with symptomatic anastomotic stenosis. Patients were treated with: Urethral dilation, cold knife (CK) urethrotomy, transurethral resection (TUR) of stenosis and dilation/resection of the strictures with consecutive TRUS-guided injection of a long-acting steroid (dilation+TRUS-steroids). Patients remained under follow-up, which included the assessment of voiding and continence patterns, as well as cystourethroscopy. Results: In 32 (10.8%) patients, symptomatic anastomotic stenosis was diagnosed. Initial urethral dilation succeeded in only 3 (10.3%) patients; thus, 29 remained with recurrent/resistant stenosis. Urethral dilation+TRUS-steroids was performed in 14 patients, while 8 patients underwent CK and in 7 TUR was performed. Patients in the dilation+TRUS-steroids group had lower re-treatment rates, and none of these patients became incontinent. Patients in the TUR group needed no re-treatment; however, they had the highest incontinence rate (57.1%). As a result, the highest efficiency quotient was in the dilation+TRUS-steroids with the lowest in the TUR group. Conclusion: Urethral dilation with consecutive TRUS-guided injections of steroids has the highest efficiency quotient and can be performed under local anesthesia with a low risk of incontinence.