- Introduction Israel hosts documented labor migrants (DLM), and recently also undocumented migrants (UDM), mostly from Horn of Africa. This study aims to compare treatment outcomes and other clinical aspects between a sample of 154 DLM and 113 UDM who were treated in two tuberculosis clinics between 2005 and 2010. Results and Discussion Compared to DLM, UDM were younger males, stayed in Israel for shorter periods, had lower coverage of medical insurance, were less likely to be employed, and had greater difficulties in communication with the medical staff. UDM were more likely to demonstrate tuberculosis-related symptoms than DLM, were more commonly diagnosed with pulmonary TB, and had shorter patient and system delays and their treatment success rate was better than DLM, who were more likely to be transferred out. Conclusion UDM achieved better treatment outcomes, as they were screened upon entry and treatment was initiated in detention, while DLM were diagnosed in the community and may have felt more secure to abandon treatment.