- Objective We sought to determine the effect of nonclosure of the visceral and parietal peritoneum during cesarean section on the formation of adhesions. Study Design This was a prospective randomized trial of 533 women undergoing primary cesarean section; in 256 the peritoneum was left open and in 277 it was closed. Fifty women in the nonclosure group and 47 women in the closure group were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively at a repeat cesarean. The presence of adhesions and their severity were evaluated at several sites. Results The nonclosure and closure groups were comparable with regard to the proportion of patients with adhesions at any site (60% vs 51%, respectively; P = .31). Time from incision to delivery was comparable in the nonclosure and closure groups (8.98 ± 4.7 vs 9.32 ± 5.2 minutes, respectively; P = .84). Conclusion Closure or nonclosure of the peritoneum at cesarean section did not lead to large differences in the adhesion rate.