- Lymphedema, the accumulation of protein-rich fluid in an involved extremity or other body part, is a chronic life-long condition following many types of surgical procedures, most often breast cancer surgical therapy. The patient suffering from lymphedema faces difficult medical, social, psychological and aesthetic issues. The incidence of lymphedema after modern breast cancer surgical treatment has been reported for between 5 to 56% of patients. Taking into account the incidence of breast cancer in Israel, there could be a yearly incidence of over 1000 new patients per year in Israel suffering from arm lymphedema. The authors reviewed the literature concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment strategy. In addition, some insights were provided regarding lymphedema treatment in Israel. This review aims to improve the awareness and knowledge of physicians and other health care professionals on this treatable but often forgotten condition.