The neuro-behavioral profile in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract Despite significant advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), little is known about the emotional consequences. The primary goal of this study was to describe the locomotor and behavioral patterns in rats following both a single-injection and double-injection model of SAH. In 48 rats, SAH was induced by injecting 0.3 ml of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magnum (single-hemorrhagic model). In 24 of these rats, post-SAH vasospasm was induced by a repeated injection of blood into the cisterna magnum 24 h later (double-hemorrhagic model). In 24 additional rats, 0.3 ml of saline was injected into the cisterna magnum (sham group). Neurological performance was assessed at 24, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks after SAH. Four behavioral tests were performed for 3 weeks after SAH for the duration of 6 consequent days, in the following order: open field test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze test and forced swimming test. Following both, a single and double-hemorrhagic models of SAH, rats were found to have significant behavioral abnormalities on the open field test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze test, and forced swimming test. A more prominent disability was found in rats that underwent the double-hemorrhagic model of SAH than rats that underwent the single-hemorrhagic model. Both a single and double injection model of rats SAH are associated with significant behavioral disturbances including locomotor abnormalities, depressive behavior and increased anxiety, even as early as 3 weeks after SAH.

publication date

  • January 1, 2013