- Objective To determine whether women with a previous uterine scar dehiscence are at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in the following delivery. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all subsequent singleton cesarean deliveries performed at the Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel, between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2011. Clinical and demographic characteristics, maternal obstetric complications, and fetal complications were evaluated among women with or without a previous documented uterine scar dehiscence. Results Of the 5635 pregnancies associated with at least two previous cesarean deliveries, 180 (3.2%) occurred among women with a previous uterine scar dehiscence. Women with this condition in a prior pregnancy were more likely than those without previous uterine scar dehiscence to experience subsequent preterm delivery (86 [47.8%] vs 1350 [24.7%]; P < 0.001), low birth weight (47 [26.1%] vs 861 [15.8%]; P < 0.001), and peripartum hysterectomy (5 [2.8%] vs 20 [0.4%]; P < 0.001). Nevertheless, previous uterine scar dehiscence did not increase the risk of uterine rupture, placenta accreta, or adverse perinatal outcomes, such as low Apgar scores at 5 minutes and perinatal mortality. Conclusion Uterine scar dehiscence in a previous pregnancy is a potential risk factor for preterm delivery, low birth weight, and peripartum hysterectomy in the following pregnancy.