Optimal Short-Circuit Resilient Formulas. Academic Article uri icon


  • We consider fault-tolerant boolean formulas in which the output of a faulty gate is short-circuited to one of the gate's inputs. A recent result by Kalai et al. (FOCS 2012) converts any boolean formula into a resilient formula of polynomial size that works correctly if less than a fraction $1/6$ of the gates (on every input-to-output path) are faulty. We improve the result of Kalai et al., and show how to efficiently fortify any boolean formula against a fraction $1/5$ of short-circuit gates per path, with only a polynomial blowup in size. We additionally show that it is impossible to obtain formulas with higher resilience and sub-exponential growth in size. Towards our results, we consider interactive coding schemes when noiseless feedback is present; these produce resilient boolean formulas via a Karchmer-Wigderson relation. We develop a coding scheme that resists up to a fraction $1/5$ of corrupted transmissions in each direction of the interactive channel. We further show that such a level of noise is maximal for coding schemes with sub-exponential blowup in communication. Our coding scheme takes a surprising inspiration from Blockchain technology.

publication date

  • January 1, 2018